# A new Epistemology

### Part two

4) Reproduce the known physics (I) --- meeting the standard:

• Equation of Wonder:
Alpha the "electron fine structure constant" is,
Alpha = 1 / Beta
Beta = 137.0359895
Beta is a strange number, and it is very difficult to derive it with an equation which has physics meaning.
The best measured Beta value for Alpha can be find in the link below.
http://www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/chemistry/general/constants.html
Up to now, there is no successful theoretical calculation for Alpha/Beta in the traditional physics. The best theoretical value came up with by the Standard Model is Beta ~ 128.
However, the FU physics gives a Beta value identical to the measured value.
Beta = 64 ( 1 + first order mixing + sum of the higher order mixing)
First order mixing = [1 / Cos (A)]; The mixing angle A = 28.743 degree, a measured value.

Sum of the higher order mixing = 2(1/48)[(1/64) + (1/2)(1/64)^2 + ...+(1/n)(1/64)^n +...]
The value for the first two terms of the higher order mixing = .0006561
Beta = 64 (1 + 1/Cos(A) + .0006561) = 137.0359
The above equation has significant physics meaning. The mixing angle is one of the key concept in the modern physics. Physicists need it to calculate the mass of elementary particles.
• Magic mixing procedure:
The mixing angle is one of the most important cornerstone in the modern physics. But it is a free parameter in the Standard Model, and it cannot be calculated by any traditional physics theory.
The Equation of Wonder hints very strongly that if the higher orders of mixing are results of two numbers (48, 64), then the mixing angle must also be the product of these two numbers in some ways. The following is a Magic Procedure for this mixing angle.
The structure of this "fictitious universe" is as followings:
1. It has 64 dimensions. Of course, they are eventually reduced to 11 dimensions (3 quark colors, 3 generations, 1 colorlessness, 4 space-time) because the interdependent relationships among them.
2. Only 48 of those dimensions are occupied with matter, the remaining sixteen are vacuum states.
3. Half of the 48 dimensions are occupied by anti-matter. Thus, 24 fundamental particles (18 quarks, 6 leptons) are needed to represent the matter world.
4. The wholeness is represented by the unit of any circle (Pi = 3.14159...). Of course, this FU structure must reproduce quark theory in order to pass the Occam's Razor test. With the above structure, three numbers (Pi, 64, 24) become the foundation of a "magic Mixing procedure."
• Since there are 64 dimensions, the wholeness (Pi) must be divided into 64 parts times and again, beginning from the 1st order, then the 2nd,... to infinite. The sum of this geometric series is (1.0516213... ) . Obviously, the wholeness cannot be divided (or mixing) evenly. Thus, the best way to divide is to start getting rid of the half of the uneven part. In fact, the half becomes a unit of this "magic procedure." I call it A(0), and it equals to 1.4788413 degrees [57.29578 * (1.0516213 - 1)/2].
• Since only 24 dimensions are occupied by matter, each of these 24 are given one A(0) first; then the rest is divided evenly into 24 parts, and this new angle A(1) is equal to 13.521159 degrees which is about the same as the Cabibbo angle.
A(1) = [360 - 24 * A(0)]/24 = 13.521159 degrees.
• If a particle wants to take up double amount of the angle, it cannot be simply as 2 * A(1). A(2) can only be calculated from A(0) and A(1) which are already taken its shares from the wholeness. Thus, the second order (way) to divide the wholeness is by subtracting what was given out the first time [A(0) and A(1)], then divides it by 24; then double it.
A(2) = 2 * [360 - A(1) - A(0)]/24 = 28.75 degree.
Note: the best measured Weak Mixing Angle is
(Sin(A))^2 = .23124
That is, the weak mixing angle A = 28.743 degree

The traditional physics was able to measure both Alpha and mixing angle but is unable to calculate them theoretically. But, the FU physics have resolved two unsolvable issues in the modern physics, the theoretical calculations for Alpha and for Weak Mixing Angles. Furthermore, the calculations for both are consistent with each other.

Dr. Hinson of Cornell asked the following questions:
• a) Why the wholeness is used "over and again?"
• b) Why must the first order angles be subtracted from the wholeness (but only "one" each, not 24 of them) for the second order (etc.) distribution?
• c) Why anti-matter is ignored during the matter distribution?
• d) Why the distribution unit is divided by 2?

• Reproduce the quark model.

5) The Fictitious Universe:
Now, a Fictitious Universe (FU) can be constructed with the following seven arbitrary schemes.

• A1) In FU, space is created by time with the following equation,
Delta S = (i^n1, i^n2, i^n3) * C * Delta T ........ Equation zero
= N * C * Delta T
n1, n2, n3 are integers.
Explanations:
1) In addition to past (-t) and future (+t), there are imaginary time (+/- i t).
2) Space of FU is created from time with two factors, N, C.
• i) C is light speed, that is, FU is a flat universe.
• ii) N produces 64 quantum states (or sub-spaces).

• A2) A selection rule. N^2 = { +/- 1, +/- 3}.
When N^2 = +/- 1, the sub-space (quantum state) is a particle.
When N^2 = +/- 3, they are pure vacuum.

• A3) Delta T > 0. The time sheet (a complex plane) has two holes, one at the "origin," the other at the "infinite." In fact, this time sheet can be folded into a garden hose. These are two very, very important points in Fictitious Universe;

one, FU has two holes,
two, the FU time sheet is topologically identical to a garden hose.

• A4) The shape of these holes is a circle which can be defined with a number pi = 3.1416159...

• A5) The mixing of 64 quantum states around the two holes (sinking holes) creates a whirlpool, and it creates an "intrinsic angular momenta," the h-bar (Planck constant).

• A6) The interaction of space and time creates forces which can be described with the following equation,
F = K * h-bar/(delta S * delta T)
K is the coupling constant.

• A7) There is a "Nothingness" (zero) which can be represented with a name "Vacutron," and h-bar must arise from a concept of angle which can be represented with a word "Angultron."

Well, these are all we need to construct a Fictitious Universe, and no more.

Now, we are able to derive many laws for this Fictitious Universe, the FU laws. Of course, these FU laws have nothing to do with any known physics. However, some comparisons can be made between them.

Reproduce the known physics (II):
• FU law 1: According to A1, A2, there are 48 fundamental particles, 24 of them carry a + (plus) sign, 24 with a - (minus) sign.
• FU law 2: The mixing of these 64 quantum states creates some mixing angles which can be calculated with a Magic Mixing Procedure (the 48 @ 64 stuff).
• FU law 3: The full mixing is represented with a dimensionless constant, the electric fine structure constant which can be calculated with an Equation of Wonder (again, the 48 @ 64 stuff).
• FU law 4: the electric charge:
The h-bar is the hinge, the pivot point, the gate of this Fictitious Universe. It divides Fictitious Universe into two worlds. In FU, this h-bar can be viewed as a "unit" or a "pouch." There is space-time outside of this pouch, and space-time inside of it.
Outwardly: When this pouch moves "in" the space-time with light speed, it makes a signature which I call it "electric charge," and it can be defined with the following equation,
q = (+/-) (h-bar * C)^(1/2)

• FU law 5: mass charge,
Inwardly: The space-time inside of this pouch has a different "look." The size of this pouch is defined with "lambda," the wave length of this pouch. When h-bar is "divided" by "lambda * C," the internal world of h-bar is defined, and I call it "mass charge."
m (mass) = h-bar/ (lambda * C)
= h-bar * Frequency / C^2
= E (energy) / C^2
That is, in FU, the "mass charge" and the "electric charge" arise from the same source, the h-bar.
That is, Einstein's dream of unifying electric force and gravitational force can be realized in this Fictitious Universe regardless of whether it can be done in terms of traditional physics or not.

• FU law 6: The unification of electric force with gravitational force in FU is very simple.

a) Electric charge q = k * (h-bar * C)^(1/2)
Coulomb force F (C) = k * q1 * q2/r^2
= k * k1 * k2 (h-bar * C)/r^2
= f1 * (h-bar * C/r^2)
b) The gravitation constant G has a dimension as follow:
G = (h-bar * C / a^2)
"a" is a mass unit.
Gravitational force F (g) = G * m1 * m2 / r^2
= (m1 * m2/ a^2) (h-bar * C/r^2)
= f2 * (h-bar * C/r^2)
The only difference between F(C) and F(g) is their coupling constant f1 and f2.
• FU law 7: the unified force equation.
Use A1 (Arbitrary scheme 1),
delta S = C * delta T
both F(C) and F(g) can be re-written as
F (unified) = K * h-bar / (delta S * delta T)

• FU law 8: the uncertainty principle,
This unified force will give rise to an uncertainty principle (the Fictitious Universe version).
Delta P = F (unified) * delta T
= K * h-bar / delta S
That is, delta P * delta S = K * h-bar
K (the coupling constant) distinguishes the quantum world from the classic world.

• FU law 9: there are quarks according to the Prequark model

• FU law 10: there must be 3 generations of quantum states (quarks) in FU physics.
With the three arbitrary laws of Fictitious Universe (A1, A2, A7), we can reach the following conclusions:
1. There are 64 quantum states (4*4*4)
2. There are 48 quantum states when N^2 = { +/- 1},
24 for +1, and 24 for -1.
3. With two codes (V, A) and three seats, there can only be 8 quantum states.
4. 24/8 = 3
Traditional physics does not know why there are three generations of quarks. But, it is a direct consequence of its internal logic in the Fictitious Universe.

• FU law 11: the Fictitious Universe has 11 dimensions,
• A: Time superstring (A1) is as a garden hose (a donut).
• B: A garden hose has two spaces, and they cannot know each other. Every point on the garden hose needs two sets of coordinates. For observer standing outside the garden hose, he sees a point on the garden hose with a set of coordinates (Xe, Ye, Ze). The same point viewed from the inner space of the garden hose has (or must use) a new set of coordinates (Xi, Yi, Zi). Then, the empty space around the garden hose is not part of the garden hose world sheet, and it has no coordinate. All points of this empty space cannot be distinguished among one another, that is, they can be viewed as the same point. However, this empty space point must also be one dimension, E (nothingness). Thus, a garden hose (or a donut) has (or must have) 7 dimensions.
• When this garden hose winds itself into a donut, the external coordinates further divides into two sets (Xei, Yei, Zei) and (Xee, Yee, Zee). This garden hose world sheet now has (or needs) 10 dimensions -- (Xi, Yi, Zi), (Xei, Yei, Zei), (Xee, Yee, Zee), and E (nothingness).
• The above garden hose world sheet is a static world sheet. On the contrary, the time string is a dynamic garden hose, and it has a clearly defined moving direction. This must also be a dimension, T the ordinary time.
Finally, the space-time world sheet has (or needs) 11 dimensions. There are four (4) visible cosmic dimensions:
(Xee, Yee, Zee) and T are ordinary 4 space-time dimensions.

There are seven (7) hidden quantum dimensions:
(Xei, Yei, Zei) are three generations (genecolors).
(Xi, Yi, Zi) are three quark colors.
E (nothingness) is pure vacuum, the Nothingness or Colorlessness.

Not only are we able to visualize 11 dimensions of this universe in terms of Topology. This scheme even reproduces the entire Quark theory and resolves the "Three Generation" issue.

6) The beauty contests / wrestling matches:
After "the meeting standards process," the FU physics is no longer an assumption. It has earned its right to enter a contest with the traditional physics.

I am proposing five criteria as the judgement rules for those contests.

Round one: the power of simplicity --- which physics provides a simpler explanation for any given feature of physics.
There are many ways to measure which physics is simpler. However, the easiest way is decided by the audience. Which physics can be understood easier by non-physicists. This TOE e-journal has over 3,300 philosopher readers. They could be the judges for this round on the following issues:

1. The neutron decay -- for traditional physics, you must understand how a d-quark transforms into a u-quark. For FU physics, you can just follow its simple logic.
see http://clik.to/NeutronDecay
2. The Muon decay -- why should it include both electron neutrino and muon neutrino?
see http://clik.to/NeutronDecay
3. Why is there uncertainty principle? See "FU law 8" or
Gravity
4. The Frictional Quantum Hall Effect

Round two: The power of explanation --- which physics can provide a better explanation for any issue of physics.
• The following issues cannot be calculated or explained by traditional physics, but they can be resolved in FU physics.
1. How to calculate the electric fine structure constant, alpha = 1/137.03598
2. How to calculate the Weak Mixing Angle = 28.75 degrees!
3. Why are there three generations of quark?
4. How many dimensions this universe has? and how to visualize it?
5. How does biological life arise in terms of physics laws? Physicists claim that biological life is a bowl of chemical soup. Because all chemical reactions obey laws of physics, the issue of how biological life arise in terms of physics laws is no longer a problem. But, biological life is much more than a bowl of chemical soup. It must have a Turing computer, and the traditional physics cannot give rise to a Turing computer for life directly. But, FU physics does.
See http://clik.to/BioLife
6. Why is there a direction for time?
See http://go.to/FictitiousUniverse under "Where is Tomorrow?"
• Both Supersymmetry theory and FU physics can explain the fact of intrinsic spin, but only FU physics can explain how does this supersymmetry break.
See http://go.to/FictitiousUniverse under "Where is Tomorrow?"
• Both Superstring theory and FU physics view the quark as a superstring, but only FU physics provides a description for its internal structure.
See http://go.to/FictitiousUniverse under "Prequark Chromodynamics."
• FU physics can provide a better explanation of why proton has a longer life time than the life of universe.
see Proton
• What is entropy? (in terms of Muon decay) See future issues
Round three: the power of unification --- which physics can provide more unifications. Only FU physics can perform the following unifications.
1. The unification of all forces (including the gravitational force) with a "unified force equation."
a) This unified force equation also reproduces the uncertainty principle.
b) It also unifies mass charge and electric charge.
2. It unifies quark theory with Superstring theory.
3. It unifies the physics universe and the mathematics universe.
a) A two code system to represent the computable universe.
b) The 11-dimension encompasses the non-computable universe.
4. Unification of physics laws with life forces (intelligence, consciousness, etc.)
5. Unification of mortal (physics, biology, etc.) world with the immortal (mathematics, God, etc.) world.
Round four: the power of inclusion --- which physics can encompass more of other truths, The following issues are way beyond the scope of traditional physics, but they are all direct consequences of the FU physics.
1. The rise of moral truths.
2. The rise of the "first principle of metaphysics." Is creating something from nothing possible?
3. The rise of physics laws themselves.
4. The rise of arithmetics in terms of physics laws.
5. The theological issues: Can God be understood in terms of physics laws?
6. Can unthinkable (of other methodology) be thinkable with FU epistemology?
Round five: the power of indispensability --- which physics is indispensable.
The following issues cannot be addressed without the FU physics.
1. The theoretical calculation of electric fine structure constant.
2. The theoretical calculation of Weak Mixing Angle.
3. The rise of bio-computer.
4. Why are there three generations of quark?
5. The 11 dimensions of universe be visualized.
6. All unifications listed in Round three.
7. All issues listed in Round four.
After these five round wrestling matches, the FU physics is now alive regardless of whether it is real or not. If this Fictitious Universe is, indeed, different from the one created by God, we should email Him this FU design as a blue print for His next creation.

With this FU physics, physics is no longer monopolized by physicists. Everyone is now able to understand the true blueprint of the universe from your own base because your knowledge (whatever it is) is part of FU physics.

A new Epistemology

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