Prequark Chromodynamics

Copyright © 1992 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

I: Prequark representations

In Quantum Chromodynamics, the fundamental elementary particles are descirbed with the graph below.

There are also three quark colors. In Prequark theory, these three colors can be represented as three seats. For each seat, it can be either empty (Vacutron) or occupied (Angultron). Thus, only four different kinds of particles can be formed:

  1. A particle with all seats occupied by Angultrons carries one unit of electric charge, and it is named positron.
  2. A particle with two seats occupied by Angultrons carries 2/3 units of electric charge, and it is named UP quark.
  3. A particle with one seat occupied by an anti-Angultron carries -1/3 units of electric charge, and it is named Down quark.
  4. A particle with no seat occupied by Angultron carries zero units of electric charge, and it is named neutrino.

Furthermore, for a given quark, there are three ways to arrange the seating, and each way is distinguishable from others. Physicists have chosen three color labels to identify these differences. So, two quarks (Up and Down) evolve into six distinguishable quarks. The entire present universe is constructed with these eight elementary particles (six quarks and two leptons).
Again, in Quantum Chromodynamics, there are three generations of quarks. These three generations are identified with three numbers, 1, 2 and 3. The prequark representations for those elementary particles are listed in table I and table II.

Table I: Prequark Representation for Leptons
Generation Particle name Prequark Representation Colors Electric Charge
1st Electron -(A, A, A1) colorless one (1)
1st Neutrino (V, V, V1) colorless 0
2nd Muon -(A, A, A2) colorless one (1)
2nd Muon neutrino (V, V, V2) colorless 0
3rd Tau -(A, A, A3) colorless one (1)
3rd Tau neutrino (V, V, V3) colorless 0

Table II: Prequark Representation for Quarks
Generation Particle name Red Yellow Blue Electric Charge
1st Up quark (V, A, A1) (A, V, A1) (A, A, V1) 2/3
1st Down quark -(A, V, V1) -(V, A, V1) -(V, V, A1) -1/3
2nd Charm quark (V. A. A2) (A, V, A2) (A, A, V2) 2/3
2nd Strange quark -(A, V, V2) -(V, A, V2) -(V, V, A2) -1/3
3rd Top quark (V, A, A3) (A, V, A3) (A, A, V3) 2/3
3rd Bottom quark -(A, V, V3) -(V, A, V3) -(V, V, A3) -1/3

Three notions shall be mentioned here.
First, the quark color corresponds to a special seating arrangement. I have chosen the first seat to be red, yellow for the second seat, blue for the third. The quark color is identified by the seat's color which is occupied by a minority prequark. For example, V is the minority prequark in (V, A, A1), and it sits on the red seat; so (V, A, A1) has a red color. (V, A, V1) is yellow because the minority prequark A sits on the yellow seat. The prequarks (A or V) themselves are colorless.
Second, quark colors obey the complementary rules: a) R + Y + B = White (colorless), b) R + Y = anti-B, etc.
Third, the generation of a quark or a lepton is represented by a number, 1, 2 or 3. For convenience, the generation numbers are attached on the third seat. The prequarks and seats have no generation.

[To other topics]

Prequark theory was developed in 1979. The first draft of the manuscript was sent for peer reviews in early 1980. The following is a partial list of those reveiwers. RD (review date) is the date they sent back their review.
  1. J.D. Jackson, Chairman of physics dept., University of California, Berkeley, RD (Review Date) January 22, 1980
  2. Richard P. Feynman, CIT, RD: October 6, 1980
  3. F. Bary Malik, Chairman of Physics Dept., Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, RD: August 22, 1980
  4. Alan Berman, Director of Naval Research Laboratory, RD: August 15, 1980
  5. W. M. Reid, Vice-President of College of Cape Breton, Canada, RD: March 26, 1982
  6. D. B. Trauger, Associate Director, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, RD: April 1, 1982
  7. The Physics Teacher, Clifford Swartz, RD: July 8, 1982
  8. George E. Duvall, Washington State University, Pullman, RD: November 8, 1982
  9. Edwin J. Prior, NASA, Langley Research Center, RD: December 17, 1982
  10. John J. Gassner, Department of the Army, RD: April 7, 1983
  11. Elmer Nussbaum, Taylor University, Upland, Indiana, RD: April 29, 1983
  12. Sidney D. Drell, Stanford University, SLAC, RD: July 7, 1983
  13. Progress of Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Japan, RD: July 18, 1983
  14. The Physical Review D, D. Nordstrom, RD: October 15, 1983
  15. Science Digest, Frances Bishop, RD: October 31, 1983
  16. Reviews of Modern Physics, David Pine, RD: November 30, 1983

In 1984, the Prequark Theory was developed as "Super Unified Theory" which was published in April 1984.

Super Unified Theory: by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong, 1984.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 84-90325
ISBN 0-916713-02-4

This is a physics theory which unifies all forces, including gravity. The Prequark theory was fully developed in this book.
It is now listed at,
the url is